Melon (whale):The melon is a oily, fatty lump of tissue found at the centre of the forehead of most dolphins and toothed whales The function of the melon is not completely understood, but scientists believe it provides a means of focussing sounds used in echolocation. Some species melons are more developed and specialized than others. The Sperm Whale has specialized sufficiently that the oil within the organ is chemically distinct from that found in other toothed whales. In fact the differences in size and composition are so great that the organ it is own name - see Sperm Whale.
The melon of the Beluga is also unique. Part of its adaption to its icy environment is to do more with its melon (though scientists aren't exactly sure what) by changing its shape at will.
Animal echolocation: is the ability of some animals to locate objects by emitting sound waves and listening for the echo. This is used to detect obstacles, predators and prey. It is used by bats, dolphins and some whales. Two bird groups also employ this system for navigating through caves, the so called Cave Swiftlets in the genus Aerodramus (formerly Collocalia) and the unrelated Oilbird Steatornis caripensis.
(Humans employ technology that uses the same principle: sonar for navigation of watercraft and medical ultrasound imaging to look inside the body.)
The ultrasound echolocation used by bats was first described by zoologist Donald Griffin in 1938 when working as an undergraduate at Harvard.
Besides emitting ultrasonic pulses, bats employ two kinds of saccades.
Position (mechanical translation) saccades: moving the body, the head, or
the ear flaps from side to side
Frequency saccades: varying the frequency depending on ambient conditions
Both kinds of saccades result in improvement of the spatial information (distance and location) and resolution.
For a comprehensive description of the echolation used by bats see microbat.
Dolphins emit a focussed beam of clicking sounds in the direction of their head; they receive the echo through the lower jaw. When they approach the object of interest, they protect themselves against the louder echo by turning down the volume of the emitted sound. This is in contrast to sonar used by humans and bats, where the sensitivity of the sound detectors is turned down. See Bottlenose Dolphin for some more details.
Imagining Echolocation: Note that echolocation can be a very sophisticated sense. Many people imagine echolocation to be something like a blind man tapping around in the dark. Closer to reality might be imagining a person walking around with a powerful adjustable torch, and seeing a clear landscape around him in color, though the colors might be a bit odd.
Bats can obtain additional information from phase shift in the echo from beating wings of insects, which "colors" the sound. Flat objects and invisible (in visible light) temperature inversions in water can act as mirrors. Underwater, sounds can travel quite a distance. Under certain conditions sounds have been known to carry over 100 km underwater.
These things combined make it possible for animals with echolocation to detect and react to conditions that human observers simply cannot detect, because the situation is out of the observers' range, can't be resolved by the human eye, or it might even be around a corner. This has rather interesting epistemological implications when studying these creatures.
Echolocation in humans: Humans can be trained to employ echolocation. Daniel Kish, who is completely blind, can derive information about his surroundings by clicking his tongue and listening to the echo; using this technique, he is able to ride a bike and hike in unknown wilderness. He has developed a little click-emitting device and trains other blind people in the use of echolocation.
Cetacean intelligence: Knowledge about cognitive
capabilities of the dolphin brain (and its related issue: the nature and magnitude
of dolphin intelligence) is still limited. This article addresses some of
the verifiable facts about the dolphin brain. It should be noted that there
are many different species of dolphin (see the cetacea article for a full
list), and so one should be careful about generalisations, because differences
between dolphin species may be as marked as differences between humans and
the great apes.
Research difficulties: Knowledge about the capabilities of the dolphin brain is limited because of major research difficulties. Research of cetacean behaviour in the wild is among the most expensive and difficult to carry out, owing to the nature of the environment they inhabit. There have therefore been relatively few scientific studies of dolphins in the wild, and most direct observations are anecdotal. Studies based on captive dolphins have limits, because it is not clear how natural their behaviour is under those conditions.
In addition, the United States Navy has allegedly carried out a substantial
amount of research which has not been put in the public domain. The US Navy
does acknowledge that its dolphin programme has trained dolphins to search
and tag mines and warn of divers approaching installations. Rumours circulate
about less benign uses, but these are unsubstantiated.
Brain Size and Mass: Some attempts to resolve the issue of dolphin intelligence have focused on various indicators concerning the size of the dolphin's brain. The relationship between brain mass and intelligence is a shaky one, at best. Cognitive ability, according to most scientists, is dependent on the quantity and quality of connections between brain cells, and not on mere brain mass. But if dolphins were equipped with brains notably smaller than those of humans, it would make a powerful case against their having intelligence that approached that of humans (a certain amount of mass is necessary, after all, to allow for sufficient neural connections to be made). One of the major differences between humans and their nearest cousins the chimpanzees is that the human brain as compared to the chimpanzee brain is much larger in size, size proportionate to body, and proportionate size at birth.
Most dolphin species have brains that are roughly equal in weight to the average human brain: for example, the average human brain weighs 1300-1400 grams, while the average bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) brain weighs 1500-1600 grams, according to A. Berta's book Marine Mammals, quoted at this site (http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/facts.html). Chimpanzee brains by contrast are only 400g.
However, many researchers believe that brain mass of itself is a poor measure because it makes no allowances for body size. Negative evidence against dolphins being as intelligent as humans is the fact that the dolphin brain to body ratio is less than half that (Klinowska, Margaret (1994), quoted at (2) (http://dubinserver.colorado.edu/prj/jbes03/brain.html)) of humans on average. However, it is not clear that direct comparisons of species that occupy such different habitats is appropriate, given these differing habitats make hugely different demands on bodily functionality. For instance, cetaceans have a high percentage of body weight in blubber, which principally helps them deal with the effects of water temperature. In the case of bottle-nosed dolphins blubber takes up 18-20% of body weight.
Other researchers have asserted that an important measure is the size and complexity of brain at birth. This is an extremely positive indicator for dolphin intelligence. Bottle-nosed dolphins begin life with very large brains: at birth they have a brain mass that is 42.5% of an adult human's brain mass (in comparison with humans, who at birth have 25% of adult brain mass). By eighteen months, the brain mass of Bottle-nosed dolphins is roughly 80% of that of an adult human. Human beings generally do not achieve this figure until the age of three or four.
The true value of various comparisons of brain mass between dolphins and
human is debatable. Comparisons of humans to closely related species like
the Great Apes would seem appropriate, since our original habitats and thus
bodily functionality are very similar. However, one needs to be careful of
directly comparing a land based species and water based species, because their
habitats make hugely differing demands. It should be noted, however, that
no other species seems to compare so favourably with humans across the indicators
of pure brain mass, brain to body ratio, and comparative percentage of size
Differences from other mammalian brains: Although dolphins are themselves mammals, their brains are constructed and act differently than those of most mammals. Unlike most mammalian brains, which have six neocortical layers, dolphins have five. While most sleeping mammals go through a stage known as REM sleep, dolphin studies have not shown any brain wave patterns associated with REM sleep. Unlike terrestrial mammals, dolphin brains contain a paralimbic lobe, which may possibly be used for sensory processing.
Dolphin brain stem transmission time is faster than that normally found in
humans , and is roughly equivalent to the speed found in rats. As echo-location
is the dolphin's primary means of sensing its environment -- analogous to
eyes in primates -- and since sound travels four and a half times faster in
water than in air, scientists speculate that the faster brain stem transmission
time, and perhaps the paralimbic lobe as well, support speedy processing of
sound. The dolphin's dependence on speedy sound processing is evident in the
structure of its brain: its neural area devoted to visual imaging is only
about one-tenth that of the human brain, while the area devoted to acoustical
imaging is about 10 times that of the human brain. (Which is unsurprising:
primate brains devote far more volume to visual processing than almost any
other animals, and human brains more than other primates.)